Depending on your camera, you may have a macro setting but the real important part is to get as close as you can...sometimes that means buying a macro lens, or using one of the many adapters or hacks out there. Point and Shoot cameras actually have a great macro feature to them, so don't feel like you need to buy a ton of stuff. Oh, and it is worth mentioning here; all the normal 'rules' of composition, and lighting still apply.
My default technique is simple to explain, but always a challenge to do: I simply manual focus my lens as close as I can and then move my body close to a subject until it is in focus. It takes a little getting used to but soon enough you will learn the distance you need to be from your subject to get it to be in focus. One hard part is the exact focus, so I take A LOT OF PHOTOS for each subject, then only after I get home and I am looking at them big on my computer is when I choose the best one.
I don't often take macro shots like the above image...unless I have a really fast shutter speed...even then they rarely come out great. Here is the image from above:
Some people say you need a tripod for macro but I don't like how it slows me down, so I compromise a shallow Depth of Field for a faster shutter speed. Most people give up on macro photography very fast because the images are not sharp, this is mostly to do with the fact that you do not have enough light in order to have a fast enough shutter speed.
The creative element is where you get unique camera angles, complimenting elements in the frame or something that has never been seen before.